The wonderful children’s book Sulwe by Lupita Nyong’o and Vashti Harrison ends with the realization that darkness — both in the sky and in skin color — is beautiful and necessary. Yet, so many of us persist in using the term “dark” or “darkness” as a metaphor for “bad things,” “evil” — or anything negative.
This is problematic, and has profound ramifications. It’s time to reexamine our use of the metaphor “darkness,” and to shift away from it. Here’s why.
Why Stop the “Darkness” Metaphor?
#1: It Perpetuates Racism
Most obviously, if our society is constantly associating darkness with bad things, this spills into our treatment of actual humans with darker skin. In other words, our use of the “darkness” metaphor for sad or difficult things supports racism.
An Example to Show Why It’s Offensive
Seem far-fetched? Let’s examine an example. Say a character in a book is described as having “dark moods.” Readers know that this phrase translates to “bad moods.” In this case, “dark” = “bad.”
Next, say a different character is described as having “dark skin.” What’s the logical translation of that second description, given the first? You’ve got it — whether we mean for this to happen or not (and most do not), the mathematical translation would be “bad skin.” Nope! This isn’t something we want to perpetuate!
No matter how much someone who uses the metaphor might insist that they didn’t mean for it to bleed into the realm of skin color, it does. Even as we try to shut off the association, it lingers in the air. It impacts our thinking and feeling, and causes hurt.
#2: It’s Not an Accurate Metaphor
Another problem with the metaphor of “darkness” to describe negative things is that it’s simply not true with regard to the literal natural world and our interactions with it. In fact, literal darkness is undeniably useful and beautiful!
Would you like to live in a world where night did not exist, and it was bright light day outside 24-7? Of course not! Whole movies have been made about people going insane while living in an Arctic region where the sun never sets. Too much sun is not a good thing.
Think about all the wonderful parts of literal darkness. Darkness is calming and restful. It helps us see the stars. It allows nocturnal animals to live, and the rest of us to sleep. It dissipates the heat. It helps us appreciate the day (just as the day helps us appreciate the night). It provides a cloak of delicious secrecy where we can embrace and explore. Darkness is awesome!
So Where Is This Metaphor From?
Some Say: “Dark Colors Are Just Sad.”
In art — from painting, to photography, to film — dark colors are often associated with sad or ominous feelings. For example, a scene with gray clouds is likely meant to reflect a depressed mood, or foreshadow a tragic event. Therefore, one might argue, “Seeing dark colors just produces sad feelings, so it’s accurate to use the term ‘darkness’ to describe sadness.”
The problem with this argument is that it is not true. Sure, a painting with gray storm clouds will likely feel sad, but what about a gorgeous mural of a black night sky sparkling with stars and dotted with fairies? A visually dark-colored piece of art can absolutely still be happy and uplifting! Dark colors do not naturally cause sadness in humans. There’s another reason people use the metaphor…
“Darkness” Is Associated With FEAR
Though we’ve seen from the previous examples that literal darkness is often wonderful and useful, there’s no doubt that throughout history, the absence of light has also been associated with terror.
It was during night that bandits could sneak in and attack villages. It is under dark’s cloak that some of the worst crimes are committed. It is in pitch black rooms that children cry out for the comfort of night lights. It is in the absence of literal light that people can get lost, or feel the horror of not knowing where they are. It is undeniable that darkness can be scary in our lives.
So why should we stop using this metaphor? Because this fear of darkness has also historically been associated with race — to disastrously harmful effect. Over and over we see brutality against people with darker skin justified by the “fear” people — usually with lighter skin — have said they felt which caused them to use excessive force. Overwhelmingly, this fear is not founded in reality.
The more we continue to associate literal darkness with fear (“dark = evil”), the more that fear can seep into our real-life human interactions. It will behoove us all to find other words besides the metaphor of “darkness” to describe things that cause us fear or bad feelings. (See these beautiful Black and Latina dolls to show one way to teach kids, starting young, that dark things aren’t scary!)
It’s in Religious Texts that “Pre-Date Race”
One argument for why to keep using the “darkness” metaphor to mean bad (and “light” metaphor to mean good) is that it is pervasive in religious texts such as the Bible which were written long before the modern construct of race.
By this logic, some assert we should continue to use these phrases in our modern speech and writing because they are historic and have “nothing to do with modern race,” thus meaning they are “not offensive.”
The problem with this argument, however, is that just because something was created in an older context, it doesn’t mean that it can’t still cause harm today. If we realize as speech or thought habit with historic roots is problematic, we have the power to revise it in our modern day if it will lead to a more respectful and loving world.
To be clear, I am NOT advocating for literally revising historic texts. Rather, I’m explaining that it is vital to openly discuss the modern impacts of these metaphors, and to consider revising our current-day use of them in NEW speech and writing. But how? Read on…
So What’s The Solution?
It can be frustrating when a term which we are used to using is suddenly problematized, and we are challenged to alter it. Never fear, however — there are many solutions! Here are several ideas.
Phrases That Can Replace “Dark”
Instead of saying “dark times” as a metaphor to mean “negative times” try: “difficult times,” “sad times,” or “challenging times.” If you want to be more poetic, try: “fiery times,” “times that cut like a knife,” or “times that bleed our souls dry.”
The options for replacement phrases are only as limited as our imagination — and the human imagination is rich and powerful!
What Are We Teaching?
If you’re still on the fence about replacing this metaphor, imagine this: You are a young girl with beautiful dark brown skin. You’re sitting in a first grade class, and the teacher is reading a book that describes how it was a “dark time” in a village.
“Does that mean there was no sun?” you ask, “because I see the sun in the picture, so it doesn’t make sense to me that it’s called ‘a dark time.'”
“No, no,” replies the teacher. “‘Dark time’ in this context is a metaphor that means a bad time.”
“Oh,” you reply, “so dark is bad?” You look around and notice your skin is darker than the children sitting next to you. “Does that mean that my skin color is bad?”
“Of course not!” replies the teacher with a reassuring laugh. “‘Dark’ sometimes means bad, but it doesn’t mean your skin is bad! Your skin is gorgeous!”
“So why does the book use the word ‘dark’ to mean ‘bad?’ How do we know when dark is bad and when it’s good?”
Just think about that scene and how you’d feel as that little girl. Wouldn’t it have been more human if the teacher had launched the book by proactively explaining the following?
“In the past, people used the term ‘dark’ to mean ‘bad,’ but we don’t do that anymore. Now we realize the beauty and importance of darkness.”
Yes, it takes a little effort and brainpower to shift ingrained patterns of speech, but if those shifts can help benefit our fellow humans — and help make our world a more inclusive, anti-racist, loving place — wouldn’t it all be worth the effort?
What’s YOUR Take on the “Dark” Metaphor?
What about you? What has your experience been with the use of the metaphor “darkness,” and do you think it’s time for us to shift it? Do share!
The author, Lillie Marshall, is 6-foot-tall National Board Certified Teacher of English from Boston who has been a public school educator since 2003. She launched Teaching Traveling in 2010 to share expert global education resources, and over 1.6 million readers have visited over the past decade. Lillie also runs Around the World “L” Travel and Life Blog, and DrawingsOf.com for educational cartoons. Do stay in touch via subscribing to her monthly newsletter, and following @WorldLillie on social media!